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In private adoptions, also known as independent adoptions, the adoptive parents adopt directly from the biological mother or biological parents and not an adoption agency. Private adoptions are governed by state law, both the state in which the baby is born and where the adoptive parents reside. An attorney generally facilitates private adoptions and handles the legal issues that need to be addressed. Typically both sides, the biological parents’ and the adoptive parents’, should be represented by legal counsel. Often the adoptive parents pay a biological mother’s medical expenses and certain pregnancy, insurance, legal, and living costs. It is important to note that the adoptive parents cannot pay the biological mother for giving up her baby. This is viewed as a form of child trafficking, and it is a crime.